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I know ECCN is the Export Control Classification Number, does it apply to EAR? And does it also apply to ITAR?

ECCN is an EAR concept. Defense articles and defense services subject to the ITAR do not have ECCNs.

Would you please give me an example of ITAR classification number?

US Munitions List Category XIII(b)

If I have a product that utilizes a component that includes a cryptographic security module (but we will not be utilizing the encryption function) can I ship the product as per usual or are there some special classification and/or license involved?

You need to compare the details of the item to Category 5 part 2 to see how those controls apply to the item.

We shipped an ITAR commodity to Turkey under a USML-State Department license. The customer now wants to return the commodity for a refund. It is ok with us but we have the following questions:  1) Is there anything we need to do at our end?  2) We saw that ATF is involved with “import” of US -USML goods? Is that true?

The ITAR does not regulate or control permanent imports into the United States as you described.  BATFE has a US Munitions Import List and regulates permanent imports of the things on that list.  In fact, if your item is on the USMIL, it likely requires a BATFE export and import permit. The USMIL is similar to the USML but controls significantly fewer items.

When do Schedule B numbers need to be included on invoices and other order/shipping documentation? Is there a difference between regulation requirements and best practices in the aerospace industry concerning listing Schedule B numbers?

The Schedule B number must be included in the Electronic Export Information submitted via AES in many cases, but US export rules do not require that you put it on other documents. Putting the Schedule B number on the invoice certainly is a good practice if you determine that doing so is a wise use of your limited export compliance resources.

I work for a non-US company (Canada) that is looking to export finished goods that are not an ITAR classed item, but has one component that is classified as ITAR from a US based manufacturer. Would there still need to be an export permit required since the ITAR item has changed its identity?

The ITAR usually retains control and licensing requirements over such items.  In many cases the original US export license would authorize what you want to do but you should check with the US exporter to find out what its license authorizes.