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We shipped an ITAR commodity to Turkey under a USML-State Department license. The customer now wants to return the commodity for a refund. It is ok with us but we have the following questions:  1) Is there anything we need to do at our end?  2) We saw that ATF is involved with “import” of US -USML goods? Is that true?

The ITAR does not regulate or control permanent imports into the United States as you described.  BATFE has a US Munitions Import List and regulates permanent imports of the things on that list.  In fact, if your item is on the USMIL, it likely requires a BATFE export and import permit. The USMIL is similar to the USML but controls significantly fewer items.

When do Schedule B numbers need to be included on invoices and other order/shipping documentation? Is there a difference between regulation requirements and best practices in the aerospace industry concerning listing Schedule B numbers?

The Schedule B number must be included in the Electronic Export Information submitted via AES in many cases, but US export rules do not require that you put it on other documents. Putting the Schedule B number on the invoice certainly is a good practice if you determine that doing so is a wise use of your limited export compliance resources.